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Untitled Document
Title: Developmental History of the Theodolite
Theoretical science bases upon theories. Theories and formulae have deep roots in science. Without reading the past theories perhaps a science student cannot take any practical step towards his objective. A scientist does many experiments on the past theories and performs new invention. Sometimes such invention results in more benefits to humanity as compared to the previous ones. This is the reason that scientists work day and night to think over the invented things to make them more useful and to share his discoveries with other people. We believe in the principles to help human beings in the field of science and technology.

This thing mobilized us to do work on theodolite. Being young scientists our knowledge is limited. But we did what ever we could in this regard. We invite our colleagues to read our paper and to inform us about the mistakes that we did. Although theodolite existed before our research but we were totally unaware of this machine. The interesting thing is that our Theodolite machine can perform all those functions which a new, modern and digital machine can do. The curiosity in science invention led us to make such survey machine. Its early developmental history is so interesting, like other inventions that took place in the field of science. So we are il1ustrating it briefly in the following lines.

One day we went at a shop and bought a hat made of straws. When we brought it in our school, our colleagues joked a lot at us. We brought it to avoid sun light while doing project work in sunny days. When our Teacher Mr. Muhammad Tariq khan saw us working, he told us that it was a very precious thing in the field of survey. He told us that if we focus an object in the direction of our hat and then if we move our neck slightly to focus another object in different directions the two objects will be at equal distances.

We observed different objects and found them approximately at equal distances. We intended to make a permanent machine for this purpose. We started our work and first of all we did our experiment on a useless loud speaker stand. We fitted a long pipe on it and focused different objects. Then we measured their distances from the point of observation. We found that in reality they were laid at equal distances from the place of observation. So we got more accurate result as compared to the previous one. But in the speaker stand there was no adjustment to focus different objects. So we thought to make a stand of proper adjustment.

For the purpose of adjustment we took a five feet long pipe of iron and fitted another pipe on it and did different experiments. The results were accurate but at this stage we faced some other difficulties, for example it was so heavy to carry it from one place to another. Some of our project colleagues were unable to use it conveniently due to their low stature. To avoid these difficulties we intended to make a machine accessible for all the colleagues.

We cut the pipe in two pieces, of one and half pieces. We called it cups, the lower and the upper cups. We made the lower cup to support the upper cup. For this purpose we decreased the diameter of its one end and fitted it in the lower one and then made a cut in the upper end to support the telescope pipe in which we see and focus objects. We fitted the two cups and the telescope pipe in a small table. Now we were able to carry it everywhere because we could adjoin it into three pieces.

To get rid of the table, we made a round bottom plate of iron, and made threads in it. We fitted the lower cup in it, and made adjustable legs for it. Now we are able to alter its height for our convenience.

Before making permanent protractor for our theodolite, we were unable to obtain precise and accurate angle reading. For measuring the angles of elevation and depression we were using a separate protractor. So Mr. Farhad (M.Sc Mathematics) guided us to make a protractor in the middle of the telescope and the upper cup. His proposal was fruitful in our project.

Now we are able to use our theodolite for the purpose of leveling, finding distance between any points, for measuring the height and depth of any object. We are not exhausted; we hope that new proposals from the different corners will lead us to make it delicate, more precise and accurate.



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